• YUSRA TAHIR Hamdard Institute of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Hamdard University, Karachi
  • M. FAISAL KHAN Hamdard Institute of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Hamdard University, Karachi
  • M. FAIZAN Hamdard Institute of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Hamdard University, Karachi
  • ABDOUL HAMEED MEMON Hamdard Institute of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Hamdard University, Karachi


Photovoltaic effect, Ultraviolet radiation, Ultraviolet absorber, Encapsulant, Cell temperature


A photovoltaic (PV) system uses sunlight to produce electrical energy. The ultraviolet (UV) part of sunlight has a large amount of energy that ultimately causes a decrease in the PV module’s life due to degradation of the encapsulant, increases cell temperature, and ultimately reduced the PV module’s efficiency. This research proposes an analytical model/framework to reduce the adverse effects of UV radiation by blocking its incidence on PV modules using UV filters. For verification of the model, experimental results are also included in this paper. In the experiments, PV modules are saved from UV radiations by placing a transparent acrylic sheet over them, along with a coating of commercially available varnish. In this way, the PV module only receives visible and IR radiations. The results show a 4.6 % reduction in cell temperature by blocking UV radiations. So due to this less exposure to UV radiations on the PV module, the panel’s life is increased along with the reduction in each cell’s temperature. This research work is very helpful in increasing the life and performance of PV modules.


(1) H. Deboucha, S.L. Belaid, Improved incremental conductance maximum power point tracking algorithm using fuzzy logic controller for photovoltaic system, Rev. Roum. Sci. Techn. – Électrotechn. Et Énerg., 62, 4, 381–387 (2017).

(2) R. Yumurtaci, Role of energy management in hybrid renewable energy systems: case study-based analysis considering varying seasonal conditions, Turk. J. Elec. Eng.& Comp. Sci., 21, 4, pp. 1077 – 1091 (2013).

(3) H. Hassanzadehfard, S.M. Moghaddas-Tafreshi, S.M. Hakimi, Optimization of grid-connected microgrid consisting of PV/FC/UC with considered frequency control, Turk J ElecEng& Comp Sci, 23, 1, pp. 1–16 (2015).

(4) B. Balasubramanian, A. MohdAriffin, K. Tze Mei, Implications of ground based and satellite-derived measurements on techno-economic evaluation of the photovoltaic grid-connected system in Kajang, Malaysia, Rev. Roum. Sci. Techn.–Électrotechn. etÉnerg., 66, 1, 27–32 (2021).

(5) M O. Benaissa, S. Hadjeri, S. A. Zidi, Y. I. D. Kobibi, Photovoltaic solar farm with high dynamic performance artificial intelligence based on maximum power point tracking working as STATCOM, Rev. Roum. Sci. Techn.–Électrotechn. etÉnerg., 63, 2, pp. 156–161 (2018).

(6) F. Hamidia, A. Abbadi, A. Tlemcani, Improved pumping system supplied by double photovoltaic panel, Rev. Roum. Sci. Techn.–Électrotechn. Et Énerg., 64, 1, 87–93, 2019.

(7) T. Markvart, Solar Electricity, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester – New York – Brisbane – Toronto – Singapore, p. 42,0 (1994).

(8) A. Hemani, D. Benmoussa, H. Khachab, A. Helmaoui, effect of temperature on the algaas/gaas tandem solar cell for concentrator photovoltaic performances, Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics, 8,1, pp. 01015-1-01015-4 (2016).

(9) H. Wang, A. Wang, H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Huang, Performance degradation of crystalline silicon solar module in various ultraviolet radiation area, IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Portland USA (2016).

(10) G. Perrakis, et al., Ultraviolet radiation impact on the efficiency of commercial crystalline silicon-based photovoltaics: a theoretical thermal-electrical study in realistic device architectures, OSA CONTINUUM, 3, 6, pp. 1436–1444 (2020).

(11) J. Correa-Puerta, et al.., Comparing the effects of ultraviolet radiation on four different encapsulants for photovoltaic applications in the Atacama Desert, Solar Energy, 228, pp. 625–635 (2021).

(12) P. Arjyadhara, S. M. Ali, J.Chitralekha, Analysis of Solar PV cell performance with changing irradiance and temperature, Int. J. Eng. Comput. Sci., 2, pp. 214–220 (2013).

(13) K.A. Moharram, M. S. Abd-Elhady, H. A. Kandil, H. El-Sherif, Enhancing the performance of photovoltaic panels by water cooling, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 4, 4, 869-877 (2013).

(14) M. Sadok, B. Benyoucef, M. Benmedjahed, Assessment of PV modules degradation based on performances and visual inspection in Algerian Sahara, Int. J. of renewable energy research, 6, 1, pp. 106-116 (2016).

(15) W.T. Beauchamp, T.T. Hart, UV / IR reflecting solar cell cover, European Patent Office, Publication no. 0632507A2, Date of filing 12.05.1994.

(16) M.D. Kempe, P. Thapa, Encapsulant Materials and Associated Devices, US Patent Office, Publication no. US 2009/0032101 A1, Date of filing: 02.06.2008.

(17) M.D. Kempe, F.G.J. Jorgensen, K.M. Terwilliger, T.J. McMahon, C.E. Kennedy, T.T. Borek, Acetic acid production and glass transition concerns with ethylene-vinyl acetate used in photovoltaic devices, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 91, 4, 315–329 (2007).

(18) F. Liu, L. Jiang, S. Yang, Ultra-violet degradation behavior of polymeric back sheets for photovoltaic modules, Solar Energy, 108, 88–100 (2014).

(19) W. H. Holley, S. C. Agro, J. P. Galica, L. A. Thoma, R. S. Yorgensen, M. Ezrin, P. Klemchuk, G. Lavigne, H. Thomas, Investigation into the causes of browning in EVA encapsulated flat-plate PV modules, IEEE 1st World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion–WCPEC, Waikoloa, HI, USA (1994).

(20) F.J. Pern, S.H. Glick, Improved photostability of NREL-developed EVA pottant formulations for PV module encapsulation, 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 1089–1092, Anaheim USA (1997).

(21) Photovoltaics—The Power of Choice, National Photovoltaic Program Plan for 1996–2000, US Department of Energy (1996).

(22) D.L. King, M.A. Quintana, J.A. Kratochvil, D.E. Ellibee, B.R. Hansen, Photovoltaic module performance and durability following long term field exposure, Prog. Photovoltaic Res. Appl., 8, 2, pp. 241–256 (2000).

(23) Y. Tahir, M.F. Khan, A.H. Memon, A simple approach to block incidence of Ultraviolet radiations on PV Module, IEEE 3rd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering, Sciences and Technology (ICEEST), Karachi, Pakistan, pp. 1–3 (2018).

(24) Y. Tahir, Analytical modeling of ultraviolet radiation blocking for PV module, Master thesis, Hamdard University (2019).

B. PetterJelle, Solar radiation glazing factors for windowpanes, glass structures, and electrochromic windows in buildings. Measurement and calculation, Elsevier, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 116, pp. 291–323 (2013).

(26) NSRDB Data Viewer, NREL, Accessed on: Dec. 26, 2018. [Internet] Available:

(27) X. Feng, X. Qing, C.Y. Chung, H. Qiao, X. Wang, X. Zhao, A simple parameter estimation approach to modeling of photovoltaic modules based on datasheet values, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 138 (2016).

(28) M.S. Mehos, K.A. Pacheco, H. Link, Measurement and analysis of near-ultraviolet solar radiation, NREL/fP-253-4493, UC Category: 233 • DE92001181.

(29) Photovoltaic effect, Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EME 812, Accessed on: Dec. 24, 2018. [Internet] Available:

(30) Matthew C., Trystan W., and David W., UV filtering of dye-sensitized solar cells: the effects of varying the UV cut-off upon cell performance and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, International Journal of Photo energy, 9, 506132 (2012).






Thermotechnique et thermoénergétique | Thermotechnics and Thermal Energy

How to Cite