• JASMINE GNANA MALAR PSN College of Engineering and Technology, Tirunelveli, India
  • VENKATRAMAN THIYAGARAJAN Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Kalavakkam - 603110, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • NATARAJAN BALASUBRAMANIAN MUTHU SELVAN Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Kalavakkam - 603110, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • MANI DEVESH RAJ Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Kalavakkam - 603110, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India


Electric vehicle, Onboard charger, Optimization, Fractional order sliding mode controller, Converter, adaptive controller, Efficiency, Total harmonic distortion


Electric vehicles (EVs) have become more popular due to their excellent efficiency and pollution-free benefits. The technology requirements for onboard chargers are increasing as the number of electric vehicles increases. This research proposes a fractional-order sliding mode controller (FOSMC) for power converters to improve the efficiency of the onboard battery charger. The Harris Hawks optimization (HHO) algorithm chooses the FOSMC parameters. Independent controllers are used in a two-stage charging scheme. The grid-side ac–dc converter helps to smooth the current and voltage in the dc bus while reducing the harmonic frequency in the grid. A dc-dc converter with a constant current–constant voltage curve regulates the charging parameters of the battery on the battery side. Experiments show that HHO-based FOSMC improves the overall dynamic response of the onboard battery charger. Moreover, the proposed method performs with a current total harmonic distortion (THD) of less than 2 %. The proposed method improves 98% efficiency than existing methods such as SSA-PID and SSA- FOAFPIDF controllers.


(1) A. Jahic, M. Eskander, D. Schulz, Charging schedule for load peak minimization on large-scale electric bus depots, Applied Sciences, 9, 9, pp. 1748 (2019).

(2) K. Zagrajek, J. Paska, M. Kłos, K. Pawlak, P. Marchel, M. Bartecka, L. Michalski, P. Terlikowski, Impact of electric bus charging on distribution substation and local grid in Warsaw, Energies, 13, 5, pp. 1210 (2020).

(3) Z. Chen, X. Li, J. Shen, W. Yan, R. Xiao, A novel state of charge estimation algorithm for lithium-ion battery packs of electric vehicles, Energies 9, 9, pp. 710 (2016).

(4) M. Berecibar, I. Gandiaga, I. Villarreal, N. Omar, J. Van Mierlo, P. van den Bossche, Critical review of state of health estimation methods of Li-ion batteries for real applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56, pp. 572–587 (2016).

(5) D.N. How, M.A. Hannan, M.S.H. Lipu, K.S. Sahari, P.J. Ker, K.M. Muttaqi, State-of-charge estimation of li-ion battery in electric vehicles: A deep neural network approach, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 56, 5, pp. 5565–5574 (2020).

(6) . Na, X. Yuan, J. Tang, Q. Zhang, A review of on-board integrated electric vehicles charger and a new single-phase integrated charger, CPSS Transactions on Power Electronics and Applications, 4, 4, pp. 288–298 (2019).

(7) T. R. Granados-Luna, I. Araujo-Vargas, F.J. Perez-Pinal, Sample-data modeling of a zero-voltage transition dc-dc converter for on-board battery charger in EV, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, (2014).

(8) Y. Xiao, C. Liu, F. Yu, An effective charging-torque elimination method for six-phase integrated on-board EV chargers, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 35, 3, pp. 2776–2786 (2019).

(9) K. Uddin, M. Dubarry, M.B. Glick, The viability of vehicle-to-grid operations from a battery technology and policy perspective, Energy Policy, 113, pp. 342–347 (2018).

(10) S. Semsar, T. Soong, P.W. Lehn, On-board single-phase integrated electric vehicle charger with V2G functionality, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 35, 11, pp. 12072–12084 (2020).

(11) S. Taghizadeh, M.J. Hossain, N. Poursafar, J. Lu, G. Konstantinou, A multifunctional single-phase ev on-board charger with a new v2v charging assistance capability, IEEE Access, 8, pp. 116812–116823 (2020).

(12) J.S. Lai, L. Zhang, Z. Zahid, N.H. Tseng, C.S. Lee, C.H. Lin, A high-efficiency 3.3-kW bidirectional on-board charger, In 2015 IEEE 2nd International Future Energy Electronics Conference (IFEEC), IEEE, pp. 1–5 (2015).

(13) N. Majid, S. Hafiz, S. Arianto, R.Y. Yuono, E.T. Astuti, B. Prihandoko, Analysis of effective pulse current charging method for lithium ion battery, In Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing, 817, 1, pp. 012008 (2017).

(14) U. Sharma, B. Singh, Robust Control Algorithm for Light Electric Vehicle Onboard Charging System, In 2020 IEEE 7th Uttar Pradesh Section International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering (UPCON), IEEE, pp. 1–6 (2020).

(15) C. Shi, Y. Tang, A. Khaligh, A three-phase integrated onboard charger for plug-in electric vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 33, 6, pp. 4716–4725 (2017).

(16) A.A. Mohamed, A. El-Sayed, H. Metwally, S.I. Selem, Grid integration of a PV system supporting an EV charging station using salp swarm optimization, Solar Energy, 205, pp. 170–182 (2020).

(17) D. Mohanty, S. Panda, Modified salp swarm algorithm-optimized fractional-order adaptive fuzzy PID controller for frequency regulation of hybrid power system with electric vehicle, J. of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems, 32, 2, pp. 416–438 (2021).

(18) Y. Xu, Z. Wang, P. Liu, Y. Chen, J. He, Soft-Switching Current-Source Rectifier Based Onboard Charging System for Electric Vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 57, 5, pp. 5086–5098 (2021).

(19) V.T. Tran, M.R. Islam, K.M. Muttaqi, D. Sutanto, An on-board V2X electric vehicle charger based on amorphous alloy high-frequency magnetic-link and SiC power devices, IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, IEEE, pp. 1–6 (2019).

(20) K. Fahem, D.E. Chariag, L. Sbita, On-board bidirectional battery chargers topologies for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, International Conference on Green Energy Conversion Systems (GECS), IEEE, pp. 1–6 (2017)






Électrotechnique et électroénergétique | Electrical and Power Engineering